Blaine Brownell reviews "Case Studies in Retrofitting Suburbia," the latest book by June Williamson and Ellen Dunham-Jones.
In Italo Calvinoâ€™s novel Invisible Cities, one of the imagined metropolises, Penthesilea, conjures the disconcerting placelessness of suburbia. â€śYou advance for hours and it is not clear to you whether you are already in the cityâ€™s midst or still outside it,â€ť the novelist writes. â€śLike a lake with low shores lost in swamps, so Penthesilea spreads for miles around, a soupy city diluted in the plain; pale buildings and corrugated-iron sheds.â€ť
The unsatisfying and unnerving ambiguity of suburban development, captured with Calvinoâ€™s flair in the fable of Penthesilia, has long been met with critical disdain. In the late 20th century, architectural theorists condemned the suburbs for their vapidity and diminution of the meaning of place. More recently, the suburbs have been denounced for their detrimental ecological footprint and deleterious effect on residentsâ€™ mental health. Now, as we slowly begin to re-emerge from our pandemic-induced quarantine, we will undoubtedly see the built environment in a new light. What future do we envision for the suburbs?
Case Studies in Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Strategies for Urgent Challenges (Wiley, 2021) aims to answer this question. Written by CUNY architecture chair June Williamson and Georgia Tech architecture professor Ellen Dunham-Jones, the book is a sequel to the authorsâ€™ acclaimed Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs (Wiley, 2008), which the Chicago Tribune called â€śthe Bible of the retrofitting movement.â€ť The new volume builds on the original, with 32 case studies and enhanced research documenting how defunct parking lots, vacant shopping malls, and even abandoned airfields are being transformed to solve contemporary problems: increasing environmental performance, improving public health and social capital, and responding to an aging demographic.
The book is organized into two parts: a collection of topical themes and the project case studies. The first half, titled â€śUrgent suburban challenges,â€ť consists of these chapters: â€śDisrupt automobile dependence,â€ť â€śImprove public health,â€ť â€śSupport an aging population,â€ť â€śLeverage social capital for equity,â€ť â€śCompete for jobs,â€ť and â€śAdd water and energy resilience.â€ť These six strategies comprise the fundamental toolkit for adapting existing suburban developments to meet 21st century needs. The approaches also uniformly nudge the suburbs to become less ... suburban.
For example, undermining automobile dependence is, if anything, an inherently anti-suburban act. Although the first suburbs in the U.S. were connected by commuter rail lines, todayâ€™s suburban paradigm is based on the automobile-dependent developments that proliferated after World War II. Williamson and Dunham-Jones distinguish how modern suburban road configurations create problems not found with urban and pre-automobile networks. Roads, the authors remind us, are all about mobility, whereas streets are all about access. Suburbiaâ€™s pervasive mistake is attempting to bring street-like functionality to roads, making them â€śstroadsâ€ťâ€”a term devised by engineer Charles Marohn to describe this â€śvery dangerousâ€ť and confusing mash-up. Not only should the two types be kept separate, but they should both facilitate multiple forms of mobility.
Consider so-called â€ścomplete streets,â€ť which are designed to enable transit by pedestrians, bicycles, buses, and service vehicles in addition to cars. The book points to Aurora Avenue North outside Seattle as a retrofitting case study, illustrating how this once car-centric arterial corridor has been updated with new green medians, sidewalks, crosswalks, and dedicated rapid bus lanes.
Architects and planners should also consider ways to make the most of social capital in existing communities. A common misperception about the suburbs is that they are racially and socioeconomically homogeneous, and centered around a white middle-class way of life. But as the historians Becky Nicolaides and Andrew Wiese have pointed out, suburbia has become increasingly diversified thanks to increased immigration, the shift from a manufacturing- to a service-focused economy, aging baby boomers, and the Civil Rights movement.
Williamson and Dunham-Jones advocate the incorporation of Ray Oldenburgâ€™s 1970s concept of the â€śthird placeâ€ťâ€”a location for informal mixing and discussionâ€”into suburba